Making its debut in 2018, the Ryuk ransomware strand has wreaked havoc on hundreds of businesses and is responsible for one-third of all ransomware attacks that took place in 2020. Now it is seemingly on a mission to infect healthcare organizations across the country, already having hit five major healthcare providers, disabling access to electronic health records (EHR), disrupting services, and putting sensitive patient data at risk.
The healthcare industry is surely bracing for what the U.S. Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) is warning as, “an increased and imminent cybercrime threat to U.S. hospitals and healthcare providers.” What can organizations do to preemptively protect themselves? Our recommendation:
- Analyze what makes the healthcare industry a key target for ransomware,
- Educate yourself to better understand Ryuk and TrickBot, and
- Implement proactive cyber security strategies to thwart ransomware attacks and minimize damage from an incident (we’ll get into this more later in this post).
We’ve pulled together this Guide to Ryuk as a resource to help organizations prevent future ransomware attacks and ultimately mitigate its impact on our nation’s healthcare systems.
Why are Healthcare Providers a Target for Ransomware?
Healthcare is widely known as an industry that has historically struggled to find a balance between the continuation of critical services and cyber security. To put this into perspective, doctors and physicians can’t stop everything and risk losing a life if their technology locks them out due to forgetting a recently changed password. So, security, while critically important in a healthcare environment, is more complex due to its “always on” operational structure.
We’ve seen a definite uptick in attention paid to security at healthcare organizations, but there’s much work to be done. The task of securing a healthcare systems is extremely challenging given its scale and complexity, consisting of many different systems and, with the addition of network-enabled devices, it becomes difficult for administrators to grasp the value of security relative to its costs. In addition, third parties, such as medical device manufactures also play a role. Historically, devices in hospitals, clinics, and home-healthcare environments had no security controls, but there has been more of a focus on “security features” as connectivity (network, Bluetooth, etc.) has increased. Yet most healthcare networks are still rife with these sorts of devices that have minimal, if any, built-in security capabilities.
Healthcare is by no means the only target industry: any organization can fall victim to ransomware. Though, healthcare is a prime target for two reasons:
- It’s a gold mine for sensitive data, including social security numbers, payment information, birth certificates, addresses, and more. While monetizing such data may require additional effort on the part of cybercriminals, breaches of such data is a major HIPAA compliance violation that can result in heavy fines and could also potentially have a negative impact to patients if their data is leaked.
- The criticality of the business is as high-risk as it gets. In other words, hospitals cannot afford downtime. Add a public health pandemic to the mix and the criticality increases drastically.
This sense of urgency to get systems back up and running quickly is a central reason why Ryuk is targeting the industry now. Hospitals are more likely to pay a ransom due to the potential consequence downtime can have on the organization and its patients.
Ransomware, Ryuk, and TrickBot:
To understand Ryuk, it is important to first understand ransomware attacks at a fundamental level. Ransomware gains access to a system only after a trojan or ‘botnet’ finds a vulnerable target and gains access first. Trojans gain access often through phishing attempts (spam emails) with malicious links or attachments (the payload). If successful, the trojan installs malware onto the target’s network by sending a beacon signal to a command and control server controlled by the attacker, which then sends the ransomware package to the Trojan.
In Ryuk’s case, the trojan is TrickBot. In this case, a user clicks on a link or attachment in an email, which downloads the TrickBot Trojan to the user’s computer. TrickBot then sends a beacon signal to a command and control (C2) server the attacker controls, which then sends the Ryuk ransomware package to the victim’s computer.
Trojans can also gain access through other types of malware, unresolved vulnerabilities, and weak configuration, though, phishing is the most common attack vector. Further, TrickBot is a banking Trojan, so in addition to potentially locking up the network and holding it for ransom, it may also steal information before it installs the ransomware.
How does an organization know if they have fallen victim to ransomware, more specifically Ryuk? It will be obvious if Ryuk has successfully infiltrated a system. It will take over a desktop screen and a ransom note will appear with details on how to pay the ransom via bitcoin:
An early warning sign of a ransomware attack is that at the technical level, your detective controls, if effective, should alert to Indicators of Compromise (IoC). Within CISA’s alert, you can find TrickBot IoCs listed along with a table of Ryuk’s MITRE ATT&K techniques.
A threat to the increasing remote workforce: In order to move laterally throughout the network undetected, Ryuk relies heavily on native tools, such as Windows Remote Management and Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). Read: COVID-19: Evaluating Security Implications of the Decisions Made to Enable a Remote Workforce
Implementing Proactive Cyber Security Strategies to Thwart Ransomware Attacks
We mentioned at the start of this post that one of the things organizations can do preemptively to protect themselves is to put in place proactive security strategies. While important, security awareness only goes so far, as humans continue to be the greatest cyber security vulnerability. Consider this: In past NetSPI engagements with employee phishing simulations, our click-rates, or fail-rates, were down to 8 percent. This is considered a success, but still leaves open opportunity for bad actors. It only takes one person to interact with a malicious attachment or link for a ransomware attack to be successful.
Therefore, we support defense-in-depth as the most comprehensive strategy to prevent or contain a malware outbreak. Here are four realistic defense-in-depth tactics to implement in the near- and long-term to prevent and mitigate ransomware threats, such as Ryuk:
- Revisit your disaster recovery and business continuity plan. Ensure you have routine and complete backups of all business-critical data at all times and that you have stand-by, or ‘hot,’ business-critical systems and applications (this is usually done via virtual computing). Perform table-top or live disaster recovery drills and validate that ransomware wouldn’t impact the integrity of backups.
- Separate critical data from desktops, avoid siloes: Ryuk, like many ransomware strands, attempts to delete backup files. Critical patient care data and systems should be on an entirely separate network from the desktop. This way, if ransomware targets the desktop network (the most likely scenario) it cannot spread to critical hospital systems. This is a long-term, and challenging, strategy, yet well worth the time and budgetary investment as the risk of critical data loss will always exist.
- Take inventory of the controls you have readily available – optimize endpoint controls: Assess your existing controls, notably email filtering and endpoint controls. Boost email filtering processes to ensure spam emails never make it to employee inboxes, mark incoming emails with a banner that notifies the user if the email comes from an external source, and give people the capability to easily report suspected emails. Endpoint controls are essential in identifying and preventing malware. Here are six recommendations for optimizing endpoint controls:
- Confirm Local Administrator accounts are strictly locked down and the passwords are complex. Ensure Domain Administrator and other privileged accounts are not used for routine work, but only for those tasks that require admin access.
- Enable endpoint detection and response (EDR) capabilities on all laptops and desktops.
- Ensure that every asset that can accommodate anti-malware has it installed, including servers.
- Apply all security patches for all software on all devices. Disable all RDP protocol access from the Internet to any perimeter or internal network asset (no exceptions).
- Test your detective controls, network, and workstations:
- Detective control testing with adversarial simulation: Engage in a purple team exercise to determine if your detective controls are working as designed. Are you able to detect and respond to malicious activity on your network?
- Host-based penetration testing: Audit the build of your workstations to validate that the user does have least privilege and can only perform business tasks that are appropriate for that individual’s position.
- Internal network penetration testing: Identify high impact vulnerabilities found in systems, web applications, Active Directory configurations, network protocol configurations, and password management policies. Internal network penetration tests also often include network segmentation testing to determine if the controls isolating your crown jewels are sufficient.
Finally, organizations that end up a victim to ransomware have three options to regain control of their systems and data.
- Best option: Put disaster recovery and business continuity plans in motion to restore systems. Also, perform an analysis to determine the successful attack vector and remediate associated vulnerabilities.
- Not advised: Pay the ransom. A quick way to get your systems back up and running, but not advised. There is no guarantee that your business will be unlocked (in fact, the offer may also be ransomware), so in effect you are funding adversarial activities and it’s likely they will target your organization again.
- Rare cases: Cracking the encryption key, while possible with immature ransomware groups, is often unlikely to be successful. Encryption keys have become more advanced and require valuable time to find a solution.
For those that have yet to experience a ransomware attack, we encourage you to use the recent Ryuk news as a jumping point to future-proof your security processes and prepare for the inevitability of a breach. And for those that have, now is the time to reevaluate your security protocols.